Ella Jane Fitzgerald, born April 25, 1917, Newport News, VA, and died June 15, 1996 in New York. She was also known as Lady Ella (the first lady of song), and was the recipient of 13 Grammy Awards, the National Medal of Art presented to President Ronald Reagan, and the Presidential Medal of Freedom given by President George H. W. Bush. She was gifted with a three-octave range of vocals and was known for her pure tone, impeccable intonation and phrasing, as well as her “horn-like” ability to improvise, especially in her scat sings. While she is considered the best singer, critics suggest that she sometimes failed to make the emotional investment necessary to her interpretations. She is still one of the most influential, successful and beloved singers of the 20th century. Text contributed by users is available under Creative Commons By–SA License. It may also be available under GNU FDL.