The controversial and influential New York rap group Public Enemy was led by Flavor Flav and Chuck D. Public Enemy, which rewrote hip-hop’s rules, became the most controversial and influential rap group in the late 1980s. It is considered the definitive rap band of all time and the most important rap group. From Run-D.M.C. Public Enemy, based on Run-D.M.C.’s street-oriented beats as well as Boogie Down Productions’ proto gangsta rhymes, pioneered a hardcore rap style that was both politically and musically revolutionary. Chuck D, the lead rapper, sung with a powerful and authoritative baritone. He often spoke out about social issues, especially those that affected black communities. He influenced hip-hop to a pro-black, self-aware consciousness, which became the culture’s hallmark over the next ten years. Public Enemy’s first Def Jam albums were produced by the Bomb Squad and earned them a place on the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. However, they continued to release relevant material until and beyond their 2013 induction. It takes a Nation of Millions of People to Hold Us Back. Public Enemy’s soundscapes were as innovative as their production team, Bomb Squad. They used avant-garde cutting-and-paste, unrecognizable samples and piercing sirens as well as deep funk, relentless beats and relentless beats. It was chaotic, invigorating, and a great mix of Chuck D’s powerful vocals and Flavor Flav’s absurdist raps. Flav was the visual focal point of the group, with his comic sunglasses and an enormous clock hanging from the neck. But he never obscured his music. Public Enemy’s early-’80s and mid-’90s records were embraced by rap and rock critics. However, their militant lyrics and stance often caused controversy, particularly after their 1988 album, It Takes A Nation of Millions to Hold us Back, made them famous. After the initial controversy had settled in the early 1990s, it was clear that Public Enemy were one of the most radical and influential bands of their time. Chuck D, born August 1, 1960, Carlton Ridenhour. He was a graphic designer at Adelphi University, Long Island. In 1982, he founded Public Enemy. He was a DJ at WBAU student radio station, where he met Hank Shocklee u0026 Bill Stephney. They were close friends because they shared a passion for hip-hop and politics. Shocklee was assembling hip-hop demo tapes and Ridenhour performed one song, “Public Enemy No.” He began appearing on Stephney’s radio show as Chuckie D around the same period. Rick Rubin, Def Jam’s co-founder and producer, heard a tape of “Public Enemy No. Ridenhour was immediately approached by Rick Rubin, Def Jam co-founder and producer. Although Chuck D was initially reluctant to create a revolutionary hip-hop group, he came up with a plan that would feature extreme music and revolutionary politics. Chuck D enlisted Shocklee to be his chief producer, and Stephney to act as a publicist. He also formed a crew that included Professor Griff (born Richard Griffin), and DJ TerminatorX (born Norman Lee Rogers on August 25, 1966). The Security of the First World was the choreographer of the group’s backup dancers. They performed tributes to Motown and Stax dancers with their fake Uzis and martial moves. William Drayton, a friend from his childhood, was also invited to join the group as a rapper. Drayton created Flavor Flav as an alter ego. Flavor Flav served as a court jester for Chuck D’s loud voice and somber rhymes. Public Enemy’s debut album, Yo! Bum Rush the Show was released by Def Jam Records on July 27, 1987. The record’s sparse beats and powerful rhetoric were well-received by hip-hop critics, aficionados and fans. However, rock and roll ignored it.